An embedded system is a microprocessor-based computer hardware system with software that is designed to perform a dedicated function, either as an independent system or as a part of a large system. At the core is an integrated circuit designed to carry out computation for real-time operations.
ASIC and FPGA SoC solutions
A common array for very-high-volume embedded systems like mobile phones and smartphones, but also for (not-so-high-volume) embedded systems with special needs in kind of signal processing performance, interfaces and reliability, like in avionics, is the system on a chip (SoC). An SoC contains a complete system - consisting of multiple processors, multipliers, caches, even different types of memory and commonly various peripherals like interfaces for wired or wireless communication on a single chip. Often graphics processing units (GPU) and digital signal processors (DSP) are included such chips. SoCs can be implemented as an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) which typically can be reconfigured.